Date of Award

12-1-2013

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy

Department

Zoology

First Advisor

Whiles, Matt

Abstract

Understanding relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem function is a critical challenge, particularly in freshwater ecosystems where species losses are occurring at unprecedented rates. There is a particular need to examine these relationships in natural settings at large spatial scales. Ongoing, disease-driven amphibian declines may influence the structure and function of stream ecosystems, but little is known of the potential roles of stream-dwelling tadpoles in consumer-resource dynamics, ecosystem functions such as decomposition, and ecosystem-level biogeochemical cycling. Tadpoles in tropical streams likely regulate flows and ratios of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and carbon (C), influencing ecosystems by altering nutrient supplies to other animals and their food resources. I used ecological stoichiometry as a framework to assess how the sudden loss of consumer biodiversity in neotropical headwater streams affected ecosystem function. I quantified N and P excretion and C:N:P ratios of tadpoles, macroinvertebrates, and food resources in healthy sites (pre-decline) and sites where disease-driven amphibian declines had occurred (post-decline). I tested the hypothesis of consumer homeostasis (i.e., that organisms maintain consistent body nutrient ratios by altering excretion chemistry) over a range of taxa and size classes. I also used mesocosms in a natural stream setting to quantify the effects of grazing tadpoles, shredding macroinvertebrates and a combination of the two on leaf decomposition and associated microbial activity. Finally, I examined macroinvertebrate community structure and quantified biomass and nutrient storage in tadpoles, macroinvertebrates, and basal resources in pre-decline and post-decline sites. I also measured excretion rates, volumetric excretion, and nutrient turnover for both tadpoles and macroinvertebrates. Patterns of consumer-resource stoichiometry varied with the presence or absence of tadpoles. There were higher concentrations of C, N, and P in basal resources in pre-decline sites compared to post-decline sites, but little variation in elemental ratios among sites. Elemental composition and molar ratios in grazers and shredders varied, with pronounced differences in %N for gatherers and filterers across sites. Macroinvertebrate grazer elemental composition was higher for all elements and had lower C:N, N:P, and C:P molar ratios in pre-decline sites compare to grazers in post-decline sites, while shredders showed the opposite pattern. There were differences in both taxon-specific allometric and stoichiometric relationships in tadpoles and macroinvertebrates between pre- and post-decline sites. Body P content was a good predictor of tadpole P excretion and tadpoles in pre-decline sites excreted more P per unit body P than those in post decline sites. Individuals deviated from strict homeostasis, and the degree of deviation varied among taxa. Tadpoles also affected leaf decomposition by influencing microbial communities and altering shredding macroinvertebrate feeding. Higher respiration rates of leaf discs in chambers with tadpoles suggested that tadpoles enhanced microbial activity by excreting nutrients through feeding and excretion. Shredders alone had little effect on respiration rates, indicating that tadpoles play an important and unique role in enhancing microbial activity and litter decomposition. Leaf area loss was greatest when tadpoles and macroinvertebrates were together, indicating facilitation. Macroinvertebrates are important nutrient recyclers in neotropical headwater streams, but their role is greatly decreased in the absence of larval amphibians. I measured ~80% lower standing stocks and storage of C, N, and P in basal resources in post-decline compared to pre-decline sites. Storage of C, N, and P in both tadpoles and macroinvertebrates also decreased in post-decline sites. I also observed 98% decreases in tadpole nutrient excretion and egestion rates, and an additional decrease in macroinvertebrate excretion rates (~80%) for both N and P in post-decline versus pre-decline sites. These decreases led to >8,000% increase in the distance that it took tadpoles to turn over the ambient N pools in post-decline sites, and a 130% increase for macroinvertebrates. Similar patterns were evident for P turnover, with turnover distance increasing by 6,000% and 400% in post-decline sites for tadpoles and macroinvertebrates, respectively. My results indicate that N and P excretion by both tadpoles and macroinvertebrates constitute significant nutrient fluxes in these headwater streams. Both tadpole and macroinvertebrate communities were excreting nutrients at similar rates in pre-decline sites, suggesting that they were playing equally significant roles in their contribution to ecosystem demand. My results demonstrate that tadpoles are important consumers in Neotropical headwater streams and their loss significantly alters stream food webs and ecosystem functions.

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