Date of Award

8-1-2015

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy

Department

Geology

First Advisor

Ferre, Eric

Abstract

This dissertation consists of four chapters, each of which is either published in a peer-reviewed journal, or in submission. These chapters developed from the testing of the hypothesis that the lithospheric mantle contains significant magnetic regions that contribute to the magnetism observed/measured, either at or close to the Earth’s surface, or from satellite data. Chapter 1 “Eight good reasons why the mantle could be magnetic” (2014) published in Tectonophysics by Ferré, Friedman, Martín-Hernández, Feinberg, Till, Ionov and Conder, addresses the motivation for this project and establishes the probability of upper mantle contribution to magnetic anomalies. My role with this manuscript was to produce figures using my previously collected data (Figures 2, 4, and 6), compile known data on the magnetic properties of minerals in mantle peridotites (Table 1), provide discussion for and against each argument made, and edited the manuscript. Chapter 2 “Remanent magnetization in fresh xenoliths derived from combined demagnetization experiments: Magnetic mineralogy, origin and implications for mantle sources of magnetic anomalies” (2014) published in Tectonophysics by Martín-Hernández, Ferré, and Friedman, investigates the natural remanent magnetization of mantle xenoliths. Notably, it establishes that the natural remanent magnetization of these xenoliths is derived from a thermoremanent magnetization (primary) and not from chemical remanent magnetization (secondary) origin. My primary role in this study was to provide preliminary magnetic and petrologic data and analysis of the samples. Secondary responsibilities were to prepare the samples, edit the manuscript and provide discussion on the results. Chapter 3 “Craton vs. rift uppermost mantle contributions to magnetic anomalies in the United States interior” (2014) published in Tectonophysics by Friedman, Feinberg, Ferré, Demory, Martín-Hernández, Conder, and Rochette begins to compare magnetic properties across different tectonic settings. The metasomatized cratonic upper mantle of the United States interior contains ferromagnetic phases that exist at temperatures lower than the Curie temperature. This upper mantle would likely contribute to magnetic anomalies. Alternatively, the high geotherm and sulfide-rich mantle near the Rio Grande Rift precludes this area from mantle contribution to magnetic anomalies. As first author I prepared samples, ran experiments, processed data, produced figures, wrote the manuscript and applied for funding. Chapter 4 “What is magnetic in the mantle wedge?” (2015) submitted to Geology, examines the mantle wedge beneath multiple island arcs. Magnetic anomalies in island arc settings have been attributed to a serpentinized mantle wedge. While this material is not available to test, metasomatized mantle, common to the mantle wedge, is available. Metasomatized mantle is mostly paramagnetic, and thus supports that stepwise dehydration of a subducting slab may produce positive and negative anomalies in the mantle wedge. As first author I prepared samples, ran experiments, processed data, produced figures, wrote the manuscript and applied for funding.

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