For many years, spatial querying has been of interest for the researchers in the GIS community. Any successful implementation and long-term viability of the GIS technology depends on the issue of accuracy of spatial queries. In order to improve the accuracy and quality of spatial querying, the problems associated with the areas of fuzziness and uncertainty need to be addressed. There has been a strong demand to provide approaches that deal with inaccuracy and uncertainty in GIS. In this paper, we develop an approach that can perform fuzzy spatial querying under uncertainty. An inexact inferencing strategy for objects with determined and indeterminate boundaries is investigated, using type-2 fuzzy set theory.
Rahimi, Shahram, Yang, Huiquing, Cobb, Maria, Zhou, Hong, Ali, Dia and Petry, Frederick E. "An Inexact Inferencing Strategy for Spatial Objects with Determined and Indeterminate Boundaries." (May 2003).